Of course, a book could be written (and have been written) on this topic considering the multitudinous possibilities. The following tips may cover the major considerations, from which one should be able to better think through the considered trip.
Decide the type of the bicycling
Are you in a large group tour (>20), a small group (<5), or solo? Is the journey in the US or a foreign trip? What about the road condition- terrain, hilly, flat, or gently rolling? The preparation depends on the aforementioned questions and how long the ride is going to be. If it’s around 100-200 km and you are completing in a single day, then you should have these things with you: helmet and gloves, front and rear safety lights, lots of water (probably 2ltrs), electrical (basically for reimbursement of lost salts), puncture kit and a spare tube, and portable hand pump.
Do the route planning.
If you travel a journey regularly (like a commute), you can choose to experiment with different routes. There are often less obvious routes you can take to avoid traffic or difficult junctions. The Bike Hub app can help you find these, although it's also far from perfect.Tips on Safe Cycling Journey
The bicycle suitability and ride worthiness considerations.
Is the trip for paved roads, for a mixture of paved/gravel, for rail-trail riding, for off-the-beaten-path? Keep in mind that there are a small cadre of bikes known as touring bikes and that you might wish to consider their pros and cons: Surly, Trek, REI, Specialized, Cannondale, most complete lines have a well throughout touring bike, some specialty manufacturers specialize in them. That's not to say you can't ride whatever you have, with personal innovations that can be awesome. Riding the bike day in and day out during the journey really calls for a comfortable bicycle. The consideration contains suspension consideration and daily distance considerations- probably can't do 100 mile days on a full suspension bike. Besides, the comfort, handlebars, seat, fenders, pedals, and shocks should also be taken into account. What’s more, gearing, derailleur, internal hub, and single speed need mentioning, though most folks tour with a derailleur bike, the terrain may dictate a special, ultra-low gearing. My touring bike has a 22 tooth front chain ring, and a 34 tooth large rear sprocket for climbing a telephone pole fully loaded or the Blue Ridge Parkway.
Ask for an honest opinion from a seasoned touring friend, bicycle professional and online groups, like Endurance Riding & Bicycle Touring groups on Facebook. Multiple sources of information are good!
Personal training considerations.
Have you trained on the bike you'll be riding? It’s very important if you are ordering a new bike for this excursion. Train locally for the expected terrain and train for the weight you will be carrying. Built up to your daily mileage in a thoughtful and planned fashion.
It’s also necessary to know how to fix a flat (don’t tour until you do, unless you're riding with a personal valet), and attempt to learn a bit more about bicycle maintenance with each journey.Tips on Safe Cycling Journey
The touring gear lists.
Do pare down what you take, as carrying all that crap can be tiring. Also, also, start your own travel lists, as you are unique, the one and only!
BY ALL MEANS, WEAR A HELMET AND BIKING GLOVES! Have proper lighting, front and back, critical for tunnels you may encounter, and they double as nighttime lighting.
It is good to be prepared, but one should also keep in mind that one can't prepare for all possibilities and that sometimes those possibilities can make or break a trip. Treat each journey as a learning experience, as you can't possibly know everything beforehand, which is also why you're riding to gain life experience.
Keep an open mind to innovation and relaxation.
A paperclip might temporarily fix a broken chain, a wire tie might replace a lost bolt. Perhaps don't set too rigorous of a schedule, be as flexible as possible, anticipate possible setbacks, ask for help if need be, allow folks to help if need be, let your mind relax and not stress out over problems, keep in mind that you won't be the first to encounter any given issue, take each day one at a time, but most importantly remember why you're out there on a bike in the first place, and above all, name your bike, as you'll spend a lot of time talking to him or her and be gentle to him/her.Tips on Safe Cycling Journey
Keep your group together.
Learn to share the pulls. If someone starts to jet out ahead grab their saddle and hang on till they get the clue. The group comes first. Practice riding the edge of the stripe on the shoulder of the road. Don't weave on every pedal stroke. Group riders must be smooth and predictable. Find the fun even when it hurts like hell.
Chill out and don't let other road users' actions wind you up. There are some terrible drivers out there and occasionally they'll make you mad. If you get the red mist, that's when you're more likely to stop thinking clearly and get drawn into a dangerous situation.
Don't risk getting stuck in multi-lane roads, as the chance of accidents happening will increase. Stick to bike lanes if possible, and utilize the pavement if it is safer and remember to obey road laws, as I see many cyclists in London riding on the road, then just going through red lights, or moving onto the pavement, going forward a bit and then rejoining the road. You'll cause an accident if you assume people will move for you because most people will make the wrong move.
Finally, cycling journey is great fun, a fast way to get around and keeps you fit. I hope you enjoy it!